Johann Wolfgang von Goethe once wrote, "In der Beschränkung zeigt sich erst der Meister." Put another way, "Masters of their craft know that less is more." While Goethe was not talking about software development, building software is a craft. The joy of solving problems and writing algorithms is tantalizing for many developers; when a developer can quickly transmute an idea into a prototype, the reward is immediate and tangible. However, software has a tendency to stick around once built. Joost Visser writes in Building Maintainable Software that "the maintenance phase of a software system often spans 10 years or more." It's quite easy to build software without a plan, but without good software hygiene, system components quickly become tangled and difficult to maintain. Therefore, the health of a software system is often improved not by what you put in to it but rather what you leave out of it.
ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, defines eight characteristics they believe contribute to software quality. The ISO 25010 standard lists these as functional suitability, reliability, performance, efficiency, usability, security, compatibility, maintainability, and portability. Measuring these qualities is not always easy, but at the very least, developers should keep these tenets firmly in mind when architecting a software product. Software hygiene impacts each category to varying degrees; maintainability is, perhaps, most obvious. A highly maintainable system allows for fast bug patching and faster feature development. Since a software system will eventually grow beyond what a single developer can maintain, every technologist on a team has an important role to play. We are not just writing code for ourselves, we are writing it for every developer that comes after us.
Good software hygiene starts at the code repository. A development team needs a solid strategy for collaborating on a software project because without one, it is never quite clear who is doing what and which version of the code is current. Vincent Driessen presents a great Git strategy in his "A successful Git branching model" article that suggests a team organize its repository around a master branch, develop branch, feature branches, and hotfix branches. This model and others like it improves the velocity of new development through maintaining clear workflows. It is much easier to pay off existing technical debt when you know how to jump in and contribute.
Server application code provides access to a traditional database, computationally expensive application features, or both, so good software hygiene here is a launchpad for building advanced features. Hygienic code should be as simple as possible. It should be brief, balanced, and loosely coupled with other parts of the system. Code that does two different things should not be in the same function, class, or file; it should be in two different functions, classes, or files. If you have to duplicate a code block more than twice, it's time to refactor it into a reusable and modular component. Documentation is also important. Since we develop code in teams, everybody should be able to understand what something does by viewing comments, studying unit tests, or reading highly descriptive naming conventions. Documentation based on all three is even better!
Good software hygiene is not an afterthought. Prototypes are one thing, but when it comes to building a lasting software product, developers must be ever vigilant in their foundational software engineering practices. Only with good software hygiene can we prevent "bad code smell". Who wants a reputation as the person who never washes his or her code? Instead, our goal should be the fresh and clean scent of maintainable, hygienic software!